The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, designed for colliding of protons at total energy of 14 TeV, will provide after its competition next decade the unique opportunity to answer the most fundamental questions in Particle Physics today:

  • What is the origin of mass in the nature?

    According to the Standard Model the origin of mass is related to the spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism. An inevitable consequences of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is the existence of the elementary particle called Higgs boson with the mass M < 1 TeV. Are there one or more fundamental Scalar particles (e.g. Higgs particle) in the mass range 85-1000 GeV?

  • Is there a Super Symmetry leading to Grand Unification of the three forces at 1016 GeV?

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) predicts the existence of new particles - superanalogs of quarks, leptons, gauge bosons and Higgs bosons. The masses of the superparticles have to be less than 1-2 TeV. Thus if SUSY is correct the LHC will be able to establish the existence of its signal. The lightest stable SUSY particles provide a potential source of "dark matter" - the invisible matter accounting for the well known problem of the mass of the Universe.

  • What is the origin of Matter-Antimatter asymmetry in the Universe?

    In additional to Higgs boson and SUSY the discovery of CP violation in B-physics sector is also possible. It bring us to the understanding of the CP-violation mechanism which play important role for formation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe.

  • Does the new state of matter quark-gluon plasma exist?

    The formation of the quark-gluon plasma is predicted to be at high temperature or in heavy ion collisions.


The international CMS collaboration, consisting of scientists and engineers from 31 countries, have proposed the creation of the large general-purpose detector - Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the LHC with the goal to give answers on these key questions.

The CMS detector (CMS Collaboration, Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC/94-38) is designed around a 4 Tesla superconducting solenoidal magnet, surrounded by a 12,000 ton iron return yoke. Muons, photons and electrons are considered as the main observables required precise determination to fulfill the physics goals of the CMS. Therefore an energy and momentum measurement resolution of 1% over a wide range are needed. The detector system is divided into three regions: the barrel detectors, the endcap systems and the very forward calorimeters. Starting from the collision point the concentric layers of the barrel (endcap) modules are: a central tracking system, a preshower, an electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) calorimeters and a muon spectrometer system. The high precision modern technologies has to be involved in building of detector components to fulfill the physics specifications in the CMS.

The RDMS CMS Collaboration

The Russian and Dubna Member States groups, effectively organized as the RDMS CMS collaboration ( Russia and Dubna Member States CMS Collaboration, CMS Document 96-85), are the important part of the CMS collaboration participating practically in all components of the CMS experiment.

Since the very beginning the substantial impact of the RDMS groups into design and development of CMS detector was well recognized in the CMS management structure. At present, this broad participation is lead by the appointed technical coordinators of subsystems which are presented in the CMS governing body and unified the efforts of many groups from different institutions at design, optimization, building, commissioning and physical operation in the following areas:

  • CMS Physics Performance study and General Software development;

  • End Cap Hadron calorimeters;

  • Very Forward calorimeters;

  • Preshower;

  • PWO crystals and End Cap electromagnetic calorimeters;

  • Forward muon stations;

  • Endcap muon system;

  • MSGC for Central tracker;

  • First Level Trigger and Data Acquisition.

Educational and Industrial Impact

The CMS experiment requires to construct the unprecedently complex equipment based on the latest development of high technologies in the frame of international environment. The participation of prominent and young Russian scientists and engineers in this Project will allow substantially increase the quality and experience of their professional skill in many scientific, technical and social fields, such as instrumentation, computing, networking (e.g. World-Wide Web), electronics, management, etc. That is extremely important for the long base scientific projects in Russia.

There are at present young Russian scientists who are of the age of 20-30 are involved into the RDMS CMS activity and demonstrated their ability to work effectively in large collaboration. In 1996 a few of them visited CERN to work in the CMS and some of them reported here on the results of their scientific research. CERN also provides the financial support to Russian students coming for participation in the CERN Summer Student program.

Substantial contribution of the RDMS CMS collaboration into the CMS project makes natural the long term deep involvement and participation of the Russian Industry in this activity. This provide an important opportunity for industrial cooperation and market search.